Vedic Contradiction: How the Creation came into Existence

Written by Sulaiman Razvi

 

The Qur’an states that Allah has created everything, the Bible states that God has created it, every religion whether Islam or Christianity takes a firm stand about the creator of the universe. But Vedas seems to be confused as to who created the universe. Vedas doesn’t answer who is the creator. There is no unanimous statement about who really created the universe among Hindus, some say Shiva created this entire universe, some say Vishnu or his avatars created it, some claim Brahma created it, All these stories are of Puranas and Upanishads, but we have to see only what the Vedas says about the creator because Vedas are the oldest scripture of Hinduism. Vedas also makes blunder about the process of creation. I won’t be explaining Vedic verses briefly, verses are pretty easy to understand. Readers themselves can draw conclusions after reading the verses. I am using Hindi translations of Swami Karpatri, Shri Ram Sharma and Shripad Damodar.

 

Veda mentions different gods as the creator of the universe, Rig Veda 2.20.1; 2.13.5 says Indra created the earth, Rig Veda 10.82.1 and Yajur Veda 17.25 says Vishwakarma created the heaven and earth, Rig Veda 10.190.3 says Dhatar created the heaven, earth, sun and the moon. Atharva Veda 9.5.20 says that the breast of the God Aja became the earth, we read in Purusha Sukta that the feet of the lord became the earth, all these Vedic verses contradict each other. Atharva Veda 13.1.6 states that Rohita created the heaven and earth. A verse states that Prajapati created the universe, another verse in Yajur Veda 14.30 states that Prajapati prayed to a Divine Speech and thence earth and heaven were produced. Some also say the creation took place after the association of father and daughter mentioned in Rig Veda 10.61.

 

 

Who created living creatures?

 

Vedas is confused about who created the humans or all creatures, It’s mentioned in Yajur Veda

Yajur Veda 14.28 With one they praised; creatures were produced…With five they praised; beings were created


According to scholars, Prajapati prayed to a divine speech and after that creatures were produced, So Prajapati is the creator of living beings here. Rig Veda says it were Vedic deities Indra and Varuna who created all living creatures,

 

Rig Veda 7.82.5 O Indra-Varuna, as ye created all these creatures of the world by your surpassing might…


 

The Atharva Vedas has another story, it says Vedic god Rohita created the creatures,

 

Atharva Veda 13.1.52 Rohita made the earth to be his altar, heaven his Dakshina. Then heat he took for Agni, and with rain for molten butter he [Rohita] created every living thing [or universe].

 

Let’s analyse the Purusha Sukta. Purusha Sukta is often quoted to show the process of creation. Some Hindu scholars even say that scientists must read Purusha Sukta to know about the creation and cosmos, they say this Sukta is very unique. I can’t figure out what’s so unique about this Sukta. Later I found that its uniqueness lies in its riddles, It has so many contradictions. It’s about gods sacrificing Purusha and each of his body part becomes the creation. The word Purusha here may or may not denote Man. Purusha is literally translated as Man, but majority of scholars translates it (in this verse) as Supreme Soul (God), according to Mahidhara and Sayana it is Spirit or Man, other scholars translates it as Almighty God and Universe. If Purusha is the Almighty god then how come the Almighty God (Purusha) himself was born? Veda says,

 

Rig Veda 10.90.5 From him Viraj was born; again Purusa from Viraj was born…


 

The word Viraj or Virat here is translated by some as universe. But scholars have different opinion on this word. Majority of scholars including Sayana and Mahidhara say it’s an egg. Some say it’s the egg from which the universe or Men were born, some also say it’s known as Adi Purusa. The word Viraj occurs in Atharva Veda 11.4.12 as Prana (Vital Spirit), in Atharva Veda 9.2.5 Viraj is translated as milch cow, and by Arya Samaj scholars as Splendid Speech [Goddess]. Some interpret Rig Veda 10.90.5 as, The almighty God created Viraj, and Viraj then created the Men (Purusha) or living creatures, they translate the latter word Purusha literally as Men. This is wrong since the creation of men and other living beings occurs in verses 8, 10 and 12. There is also a reference (Manu 3.195) which shows that Viraj had sons. Maharishi Manu also makes blunder about the creation which contradicts Vedas also, but on this Viraj issue he tries to make it simple saying that it was Brahma who produced Viraj, He writes

 

Manu Smriti 1.31-32 But for the sake of the prosperity of the worlds he caused the Brahmana, the Kshatriya, the Vaisya, and the Sudra to proceed from his mouth, his arms, his thighs, and his feet. Dividing his own body, the Lord became half male and half female; with that (female) he produced Virag.

 

So this affirms the statement of some scholars who say that Purusha is the unborn Almighty God and from him Viraj was born. But it makes the situation more complex because Vedas states in the beginning only Viraj was present and from him Purusha was born,

 

Atharva Veda 19.6.9 In the beginning rose Viraj: Purusha from Viraj was born. As soon as he was born he spread westward and eastward o’er the earth.


 

Now this is senseless and as complicated as the saying ”What came first the chicken or the egg?” This is a clear contradiction, because Purusha is unborn they say and from Purusha, Viraj was born. But this verse states the In the beginning rose (Sambhavat) Viraj and from him Purusha was born. To strengthen my argument I would like to quote next two verses of Atharva Veda 19.6.9 which would also clear the mist,

 

Atharva Veda 19.6.10-11 When Gods performed the sacrifice with Purusha as their offering. Spring was the butter, summer was the fuel, autumn was the gift. That sacrifice, first-born Purusha, they hallowed with the sprinkled Rains. The Deities, the Sadhyas, all the Vasus sacrificed with him.


 

So this shows that the sacrificed Purusha was born from Viraj. Purusha was the first to take birth from Viraj. So how is it possible that the Almighty God (Purusha) himself was born from an egg (Viraj)?

 

 

Who was Sacrificed?

 

Rig Veda 10.90.6 When Gods prepared the sacrifice with Purusa as their offering, Its oil was spring, the holy gift was autumn; summer was the wood.


 

It is mentioned in Krishna Yajur Veda,

Krishna Yajur Veda 6.3.5 The Sadhya gods were in this world and nothing else living. They offered Agni as a sacrifice to Agni [Fire], for they found nothing else to offer; thence indeed these creatures were born; in that he casts the fire on the fire after producing it, (it serves for) the propagation of offspring.

 

 

How the creation of universe (or of earth) took place?

 

While Purusha Sukta is often quoted, The Rig Veda 10.72 hymn is often ignored by the scholars. Both have similarity and difference. The similarity is that both these Suktas talk about how the creation took place and the difference is that both these Suktas give a complete different picture about creation of universe. According to Purusha Sukta the earth was gendered from the Almighty god’s feet (Rigved 10.90.14), while the 72nd hymn states that the earth was born from a tree,

 

Rig Veda 10.72.1-4 Let us proclaim with a clear voice the generations of the gods (the divine company), who, when their praises are recited, look (favourably on the worshipper) in this latter age. Brahmanaspati filled these (generations of the gods) with breath as a blacksmith (his bellows) in the first age of the gods the existent was born of the non-existent. In the first age of the gods the existent was born of the non-existent; after that the quarters (of the horizon) were born, and after them the upward-growing (trees). The earth was born from the upward-growing (tree), the quarters were born from the earth; Daksha was born from Aditi, and afterwards Aditi from Daksha. – Tr. Wilson


 

Founder of Arya Samaj Swami Dayanand Saraswati argued against the creation of universe out of nothing. He criticized the Qur’an’s concept of creation out of nothing which is similar to this 72nd hymn of Rigved Mandal 10. Hindu scholars gave more importance to the Purusha Sukta and rejected the 72nd Sukta. Both these Suktas of the same Rig Veda are contradictory.

 

 

So who really created the universe?

 

Rig Veda 10.90.6 When Gods prepared the sacrifice with Purusa as their offering, Its oil was spring, the holy gift was autumn; summer was the wood.


 

Vedas doesn’t give the list of gods who sacrificed Purusha. But it’s mentioned in Atharva Veda 13.1.55 that Rohita brought the world which rose from the sacrifice (of Purusha). It either means that Rohita alone sacrificed Purusha or Rohita was among the gods or Rishis who sacrificed Purusha. Rohita is considered a sage in that verse. It’s mentioned in Rigved,

 

Rig Veda 10.129.6-7 Who verily knows and who can here declare it, whence it was born and whence comes this creation? The Gods are later than this world’s production. Who knows then whence it first came into being? He, the first origin of this creation, whether he formed it all or did not form it, Whose eye controls this world in highest heaven, he verily knows it, or perhaps he knows not.


 

Swami Vivekananda’s English translation,

”[6] Who knew the way? Who there declared Whence this arose? Projection whence? For after this projection came the gods. Who therefore knew indeed, came out this whence?

[7] This projection whence arose, Whether held or whether not, He the ruler in the supreme sky, of this He, O Sharman! knows, or know not He perchance”- Rig Veda 10.129.6-7, Tr. Swami Vivekananda. [Source: http://www.swamivivekananda.org.in/main/e-library/hymns/the-hymn-on-creation/ ]

 

When Gods are later than this world’s production then who sacrificed Purusha? As we read in Purusha Sukta that it were the Gods who sacrificed Purusha. According to Vedas It was only after the sacrifice of Purusha that entire universe including this world came into existence. Manu also alludes that the Rishis were born after the creation of universe (Manu 1.34-35). So how is it possible that this creation took place without the gods? And who really sacrificed Purusha then?

When the Vedas which was believed by every Hindu god as highest authoritative text doesn’t have the answer about who really created the universe, then why do you believe it to be the word of god? Some may try to twist and turn these verses to hide the fallacies of Vedas, but truth will remain truth. They may deceive themselves but intellectuals will definitely find the truth. It is clear that the composer or God of Vedas is not the creator. Vedas juggles about the creator, but it’s not difficult to find the real creator of this world.

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